The clusters may be created as a result of many different phenomena, though in the case of tourism destinations this is usually the concentration of natural or cultural heritage. However, it is interesting to see how some tourism clusters are created following a story very similar to that of industrial clusters. This is the case of Theme Park clusters.
Clusters are a key concept to design competitive destinations as to ensure their sustainable development. However, it is necessary to consider many factors to make the clustering strategy work, where cooperation between various agents is crucial.
Regardless of the destination’s dimension, tourism planning should always consider its cluster structure: to what extent may the destination be split into areas according to distinct natural features or different types of business concentration?
Either if you are a small player searching for your niche or you are a bigger one willing to make a disruptive move, a sound analysis of the forces is necessary to design a successful strategy
So long as new technologies appear, there are mergers and acquisitions, emerging markets, new business models, etc. the industry structure changes and so do some of the competitive forces. This changes lead almost inevitably to reshape profitability
Beyond the 5 Competitive forces analysis, there are other factors to take into account when analyzing the attractiveness of a business sector for the destination
Substitutes in tourism are all those businesses not belonging to the industry which may satisfy the same needs: other tourism sector’s businesses, collaborative business models such as Airbnb or even video-conference suppliers in the case of business tourism