Tag: marketing strategy

Marketing 3.0storytellingStrategyStrategy planning & executionTourism marketing

From customer acquisition to customer recommendation marketing

A lot has been written about how to shift from a marketing system based on new customer acquisition towards a system focused on building a pool of loyal clients and leveraging their recommendations. This approach works for many businesses, but not so well for the majority of the tourism businesses –although it does in some cases – as long as tourists visit different places during every holiday. Most of the small or medium accommodation facilities are nowadays marketed through booking websites such as Airbnb, Expedia, Booking, etc. and charge very high commissions that seriously harm the business profitability. This is a clear example of customer acquisition based marketing.

Therefore, as long as there is little room for customer loyalty for the average tourism business, namely accommodation facilities, how can a business leap forward towards a more profitable marketing system? The key answer is building competitive advantages to set your business apart from competitors, based on relevant value related to the needs and motivations of your target clients. This starts with a thorough market research, which should ideally be supported by the destination’s DMO, as explained in the White Paper “Envisioning destination intelligence 3.0”. Otherwise, customer surveys and benchmarking may also provide useful information. Market intelligence helps find out the specific needs and motivations of all market segments and niches and how to reach them.

In accordance with the characteristics of your facilities and destination, decide which market segments or niches are most appropriate for your business. The White Paper “The 5 competitive forces & business strategy” explains how to carry out this assessment process, taking into account both the potential capabilities of your business and the attractiveness of the targetable market segments.

In the process of building your competitive advantages to target specific segments, it is very convenient to research specific marketing channels – namely travel agencies and tour operators – that are somehow specialized in your target segments. They are some of the best sources of marketing intelligence on how to build the appropriate competitive advantages and position your business in the top list for your target customers. Needless to say, they are key players to access your target customers.

Imagen4

In order to balance the demand seasonality, it is usually necessary to target many market segments, but beware of possible incompatibilities. It is important to assess the implications of adapting your facilities to every segment, and be sure that such adaptations do not exclude other strategic segments. Most of the competitive advantages should not be an inconvenient for any target, but bear in mind that there could be incompatibilities between some of them when you carry out the research.

Creating loyalty and generating good reviews and recommendations is not achieved just by complying with the customer’s expectations, but rather by exceeding them! It is necessary to offer some unexpected value that makes them feel good and creates memorable emotions. Regardless of the target segment, the best way to make your business stand out among others is by offering memorable experiences to your clients. Then encourage them – through content creation contests – and facilitate tools such as owned social media platforms or postcards, to share their experience with relatives and friends.

This is the most effective and efficient marketing for your business: let others explain how much they enjoyed being your client, and help them do it in a creative and original way that impacts the receivers of their message, providing a call to action for those who want to live the same experience. Such marketing is not only more cost-effective due to saving commissions, but it actually strengthens your market positioning and allows you to raise prices in accordance with the increase of the offered value. The White Paper “The Marketing Plan 3.0” explains in detail many of the ideas of this article.

Business trendsCo-creationCollaborative cultureEnvironmental sustainabilityInnovation

Envisioning Alternate Reality Games for marketing destinations

Unlike Augmented Reality Games, Alternate Reality Games (ARG) are not mobile based but transmedia based and much cheaper to create. ARG cannot be explicitly a marketing product, but rather a marketing strategy, which turns into an experience itself and could be indirectly considered as a marketing product, so long as they are usually free although sometimes they end up involving some business too. They stand out by offering best practices in collaborative learning and problem solving, having been object of attention by scholars, private and public organizations for that reason. ARG design requires many different skills, and there are actually several profiles matching that role, such as storytellers, web designers, and puzzle creators, to shortlist the main ones.

ARG deny the difference between the real and the game world. Actually, the game takes place for those who discover that something is going on in the real world beyond the obvious, by identifying some codified information and decodifying it to figure the clues to start playing. Another unique feature of ARG is that there is no other marketing than word of mouth from players, who look for other players to help them in tackling the game’s challenges. These games rely on knowledge sharing among players to solve the challenges and use the internet as a platform for sharing knowledge, although the game uses all types of media to provide the information to the players. The game works like an interactive networked narrative using the real world as the game board and many different media channels to deliver clues and the story that is eventually co-created by the organizers and the players.

The games are driven by a story that takes place in real time and is developed through the contribution and reaction of the players. The story characters are controlled by the game designers –unlike computer games, where characters are controlled by artificial intelligence- and interact with players, solving plot-based challenges and puzzles through collaboration by analyzing the story and coordinating real-life and online activities. Players discover the story researching just as archeologists would, as the story is split into pieces throughout the media channels to challenge players in connecting those story pieces to make a coherent narrative. The game uses players’ real live as the platform, players not being required to build a character other than themselves. The game designers control most of the story but leave some room for contribution to the players, who end up being co-creators of the story to some extent. Furthermore, so long as the game evolves demanding more complex challenges, players need to recruit new co-players with specific skills or expertise. ARG have become a genre of gaming themselves, not just a one-time occurrence, as it appeared to be at first.

ARG are usually free to play, using various kinds of revenue sources such as supporting products or marketing deals with existing products. In the case of tourism, the price to pay would be that associated to visiting the destination, without discarding other sources such as marketing deals with brands that want to be associated with the destination brand to target players as potential customers. Actually, after the first successful ARG had appeared, many corporations started regarding such games as a potential marketing strategy to promote their business as an innovative and fan-friendly strategy. So far, the major trends regarding the funding strategy for large-scale ARGs are the development of game-branded products and also fees for participation in the game.

Curiously, beyond the games created for fun only purposes, the so called “Serious ARG” have also emerged, consisting of the same structure and functioning way but with a real-world problem as a driving challenge instead of a fictional one. The first one –World Without Oil– was centered about the vision of a world with shortage of oil, and others such as Tomorrow Calling tackle many environmental issues. This type of ARG approaches the idea –ingrained in the Vision of Tourism 3.0- of open innovation for tackling the social and environmental challenges, so long as ARGs are focused on collaborative problem solving, leveraging the collective intelligence, knowledge and imagination to design innovative solutions. The “Serious ARG” approach works as a marketing strategy to attract and engage contributors through the shape of a game.

So far, the ARG phenomenon has already reached millions of players in more than 177 countries, who participate both online and in live events in the streets. There is even an award at IndieCade for games that have a social message, shift the social perception of games as a medium, represent a new play paradigm, expand the audience or influence culture.

Moreover, there have been organized some ARG directly related to the tourism industry. In 2008, the American Art Museum organised an ARG called Ghosts of a Chance encouraging players to find new ways to engage with their art collection, attracting more than 6000 participants over six weeks. At the same year, McDonald’s and the International Olympic Committee launched an ARG to promote the Summer Olympics of Beijing, facilitating the participation of players from different countries running the game in 6 languages, and encouraging players to share information and interact with fellow co-players overseas. They used a sport celebrity as Game Master to promote the game and promised to donate US$ 100,000 to charity at the end of the game on behalf of players.

Prototypes such as those presented for Augmented Reality Games could be useful for Alternate Reality Games, namely the “Worldwide ARG tournament calendar”, the “Film story or local legend based game”, and mostly the “Collaborative challenge based game”, without discarding other options. Rather, inspiration should come from the “Serious ARGs” focused on tackling real-world challenges.

The ARG can therefore become a good strategy to find and engage new targets, neutralize tourism demand seasonality and also create long lasting positive impacts both for the visitors –through the life-changing experience provided by the game itself- and for the destination, so long as the game challenge is related to some of the social or environmental concerns of the destination stakeholders.

StrategyStrategy planning & execution

Cluster based competitive advantages

In line with the origins of cluster development, the combination and cooperation of many resources and operators may result in many types of competitive advantages:

Resource uniqueness: many clusters feature a unique collection of natural or cultural resources. Cases of cultural resources could be the Egyptian Pyramid cluster along the Nile River, or the Maya Pyramid cluster in Yucatan Peninsula. Examples of unique clusters based on natural heritage could be Iceland with its unique combination of volcanos, glaciers and northern lights, or the Tanzanian cluster with Mount Kilimanjaro and the Masai mara safaris.

Experience innovation: some clusters have, beyond competitive natural or cultural resources, a special deed for innovating experiences. Such is the case of Queenstown in New Zealand’s Southern Island, the most innovative destination for adventure tourism activities, where bungee jumping was invented, among many other crazy experiences. Developing unique experiences without unique resources requires building a culture of innovation.

Operators’ cooperation: the good coordination and cooperation among the cluster operators may also be the source of competitive advantage. The case of the Trois Vallées ski area, the largest ski-lift connected ski area in Europe illustrates this type of advantage. This dominion has no unique resources like other areas in the Alps –namely Zermatt-, but the connection between the three valleys offers the best mobility efficiency for skiers who want to enjoy the whole ski dominion, allowing them to enjoy all the ski areas spending the least possible time.

Differentiated product experience: clusters featuring one main product may develop their competitive advantage by creating a unique signature experience, adding an extra value that other cluster rivals do not offer. This is the case, for instance, of the Austrian Tirol for ski holidays, offering a unique “après-ski experience” consisting with traditional Tirolean pubs with local atmosphere and also a world class network of Wellness & Spa facilities. The Ski Resorts’ accommodation facilities are all in old villages, which also give character to the experience.

Dimension: some clusters base their competitiveness in offering the largest amount of facilities or resources for a specific kind of tourism activity. Such is the case of the Golf Cluster in Costa del Sol as a Winter Golf destination in Europe. On the other side of the world, the Australian Great Barrier Reef is the largest coral reef on earth, a paradise for divers. Another example could be Macau, featuring the largest offer of Casinos in Asia.

Variety: many tourists are not only motivated for one type of activity but prefer to enjoy many different experiences during their holidays. Clusters offering a large number of different attractions appeal to an increasing number of tourists. Such is the case of the Costa Brava, offering not only attractive beaches, but also first class gastronomy, unique cultural heritage sites, a Golf cluster, a protected area for diving, Casinos, facilities for skydiving, Wellness, etc.

Price: for certain products, price is sometimes a decisive factor to gain competitiveness, especially in the case of the most standardized ones. As it happens with clusters in other industries, the competition of many operators may result in a price advantage for the tourist, though this is not usually the main reason. This could be the case of Tunisian coast cluster competing with European beach destinations, the Red Sea cluster for diving, etc.

Do you think of other cluster based competitive advantages?

Co-creationMarketing 3.0StrategyTourism marketingTourism trends

Cross-destination competitiveness programs: enhancing marketing

Route partnering with neighbor destinations. Regardless of whether nearby destinations are within the same country or not, for some tourism sectors such as International touring or Fly & drive, marketing an attractive route encompassing a selection of interesting destinations is likely to be far more efficient and effective than marketing these destinations independently. Further, it makes the product far more competitive.

This partnership may be also attractive for some types of Special Interest travel, especially in the case of the long haul markets, whose tourists are more likely to do long routes once they land at the destination. The sum of Special interest attractions of the same kind within a route makes it an attractive product to justify a trip for many of these long-haul travelers. This is also an opportunity to develop new products for many destinations in the same area, making it a win-win development project.

Therefore it is convenient to explore partnership agreements with neighbor destinations which are suitable for adding value to the final product, so as to share marketing costs while creating a more attractive product. Even if many tour operators create these routes themselves, the marketing activities not only directed to tour operators (fam-trips, workshops, etc.), but also to the final client, are likely to increase the results of the marketing efforts.

New flight connections. A key program to develop is connecting the destination with all target markets, by all possible means, but mostly focusing on flight connections. Accessibility is a key factor for competitiveness, and so enhancing the capacity and the competition among transport operators benefits also the destination competitiveness.

Attracting new flight connections is not at all an easy challenge. First, and most importantly, the destination has to arouse sufficient demand to make the airline operator identify a business opportunity. To do so –whenever the destination is also an outbound market for the other- it is convenient to join efforts with the other destination’s DMO and Government in order to boost demand to clearly creating a profitable opportunity.

The Government and DMO should share with the airline operator the Tourism development plan, to build confidence and make them envision the business growth they can take advantage of, highlighting the marketing activities planned for their market. It is important to highlight that the intervention of the Government executives is very recommended, even in the cases when it is not strictly necessary, so as to build trust from the very beginning.

Destination App. Apart from the tourist information offices and guides, modern tourists like to have all or most of the information in their smartphone. Apps provide excellent information services, being able to provide tailored information on demand, high quality pictures and videos, downloadable maps, and many other features.

In the case of Tourism 3.0, Apps may be also a tool to foster tourist contribution to the content marketing system and product co-creation. Apps can operate like a channel through which the tourist provides service reviews and ratings, creative reviews about products, pictures, videos and text based stories, etc. It is important to point out that the destination should count on many free wifi areas to empower the Apps in providing all the possible services and up to date information.

Finally, Apps may also be a sales channel, providing access to the destination branded souvenirs online store, booking service, and also offering special deals near the location of the tourist through the geolocalization technology. Altogether, it is a very powerful tool, which is actually likely to become the main information supplier and the main channel to connect tourists with the destination operators. Closely related to the App services, the new technologies for augmented reality should also be included to provide a higher experiential value to the tourists through their mobile devices.

Which other programs would you consider to enhance the destination marketing?

Marketing 3.0StrategyStrategy planning & execution

Destination models’ brand values related variables

Character and style harmony: many destinations pay special attention to the architectural style and urban aesthetics to guarantee a harmonic urban landscape. This harmony is very appreciated by most upscale tourists, for it is an important requirement to attract the highest spenders. These destinations take special care of the traditional urban heritage and require new developments to follow the same traditional style in harmony with the most authentic buildings and urban aesthetics. Unfortunately, there are also many destinations that have not taken any care of this issue, allowing new hotels and apartments to be built disregarding the harmony with the traditional style of the destination. This is a missed opportunity to offer an experience with a differentiated value that only destinations with character can provide.

Development & tourist flow constraints: closely correlated to the “character and style harmony”, destinations have to decide the maximum capacity of tourists they are able to sustain, depending on their concern on sustainability and also on the type of tourists they are willing to attract. Upscale tourists are to be more exigent regarding congestion issues that may spoil the experience, and so prefer staying somewhere a bit more exclusive with accommodation capacity constraints. Conversely, destinations with little capacity constraints are more likely to attract middle to low end profile tourists, who are not that much concerned about congestion problems.

Other constraints may be those related to the visitors allowed in the natural or cultural heritage sites, to prevent both congestion issues and to manage tourist flows according to the site’s carrying capacity. This capacity is determined by experts who assess the impact of the tourism activity on the site, and establish a limit of visitors per hour or per day that guarantees the sustainability of the tourism activity in the site.

Accommodation mix: the combination of different types of accommodation services is also a relevant variable to consider. In this point there are two main issues to resolve: first, the mix between hotels and real estate, considering also intermediate formulas. Hotels create jobs and tax revenues, whereas real estate may be an important source of funds to leverage for investments, and also to create loyal tourists. Second, there has to be the decision on the accommodation mix of categories –namely for hotels- according to the types of tourists that the destination intends to attract.

Sustainability management: the control of the tourism activity impact and the protection of the environment and cultural heritage in the development are also a key factor to take into account. Many tourism activities carried out in natural environments require damaging the landscape or threaten its fragility. Therefore the constraints on the tourism development in natural areas and the protection status given to these areas are an essential issue to consider in tourism development planning. In this point, it is necessary to determine the carrying capacity of the natural areas and determine the accommodation capacity accordingly.



Branding: all the aforementioned variables along with the natural and cultural assets of the destination define the destination experiences and determine the attributes and values of the brand. The branding messages contained in all marketing materials and campaigns should go in accordance with them. Branding also refers to the image that the destination conveys as a territory, for it is a political issue of major importance: the destination model is not only to be decided by the local tourism operators, but rather through consensus among all stakeholders.

Would you consider other brand value related variables?

Marketing 3.0StrategyStrategy planning & executionTourism marketing

Destination models’ product & market related variables

There are many variables to be considered when defining a destination model, and so several models may be designed based upon different combinations of these variables. However, as we all know, many of these variables usually have a strong correlation.

Seasonality: models focused on certain products with strong seasonality are not able to provide stable jobs to let the employees live all year round in the destination. As a result of that, many destinations with strong seasonality experience enormous variations of population, hence becoming “ghost towns” during the low season periods, due to the considerable proportion of empty hotels and apartments. A key challenge for sustainability is therefore to balance the demand by developing multiple products with complementary seasonality.

Product portfolio: some destinations are clearly identified with one product, whereas others manage to position themselves as multiproduct destinations hence diversifying risk, reducing seasonality and offering added value to many product categories by allowing multiproduct combinations, very much appreciated in many cases.

Target markets: as it happens with the products, there are also destinations focusing on a specific traditional market –national or proximity market most usually-, but for many reasons are not targeting other more distant markets. The reasons may be the saturation of the capacity by the current markets, making it unnecessary to attract new tourists; the lesser profitability of distant markets due to higher negotiation power of the distant markets’ tour operators, and the lack of adequacy of the destination services to the requirements of distant markets (language mastery, service standards, etc.), among many others. Conversely, many destinations have internationalized their demand attracting tourists from many markets.

Product category & target tourists: beyond the aforementioned target markets, it is necessary to determine the type of tourists that the destination intends to attract. Apart from variables such as development constraints, accommodation offer, character or style harmony –which favor the attraction of high-end tourists- the products offered should also satisfy the needs, motivations and aspirations of the target tourists. In this regard, innovative, sophisticated and differentiated products are more likely to attract tourists with higher expenditure, whereas standardized products offering “commodity experiences” compete on price attracting low end tourists.

Would you consider other product & market related variables?

Marketing 3.0Storytelling training & case studiesTourism marketing

Storytelling training process: finding visual supports and audio content

In the case of the Digital Storytelling, the next step is to find images or videos to support the story. To do so, storytellers have to first describe the images that come to their mind when recalling the story, understand the messages and emotional contents embedded in every image, find or create such images or videos, and combine them with the written or audio content in the best way to convey the intended message and emotions.

When combining the visual contents you have to be aware that they are creating additional layers of meaning. It is preferable to use real visuals, but if these are not available, the teller can also create images or videos faithfully reproducing the scenes of the story. At this point, the storyteller has to be aware of all the messages that the visual content is likely to convey, as the communication power of visual content is far superior to that of the written.

At this stage, the emotional tone of the story should have been identified, and therefore the teller should have a clear idea of the adequate audio content to combine with the other content, or at least it should be easy to discern whether a certain type of audio content may or may not be suitable to convey the intended tone and emotions. The way the voice-over is performed, the ambient sound and the music are the three kinds of audio content to play with.

In digital stories, the voice of the teller not only conveys the narrative but also the way he or she lives the story experience and his or her personality. The teller adds a significant layer of meaning and has the power of arousing emotions. To play with this added layer of meaning, it is also useful to consider not only the right choice of words but also other resources such as the use of incomplete or broken sentences that have the power to help the audience understand how the narrator –who is often the main character – is feeling about the scene.

In considering the addition of ambient sound, it is recommendable to start by adding as little as possible and see if this added layer of sound enhances or spoils the story. In the case that it enhances it, you may try to add a bit more and consider again whether to leave it, to add more or to withdraw. To choose the right sound, try to identify those that come to your mind when recalling the story in the critical moments where sound is usually added.

Music requires a similar exercise like that of the ambient sound. Music has the power to set the tone, change the perception of the visuals and even the meaning or the scene. Bear in mind that in adding both visual and audio contents, it is crucial to specifically relate every piece of content to the corresponding part of the narrative.

Would you consider other tips to enhance the integration of audiovisual contents?

Marketing 3.0Storytelling training & case studies

Storytelling training process: identifying the emotions and key moments

When thinking deeply about the story, there are usually many emotions associated to every story chapter. It is necessary to identify all those emotions and decide which of them you want to convey and how you want to do it. To identify the emotions embedded in the story, you may ask yourself about the emotions experienced when telling the story, and which specific facts are at the origin of such emotions.

Then, to decide the emotions to convey and how to do it, it is convenient to think about which of these emotions are likely to help the audience to better understand the story message, and whether these emotions may be transferred through the tone rather than just using expressions of feeling. Emotions are what strengthen the connection between the audience and the story, and so they are a sensitive point to deal with.

At this point, it is important to decide the most adequate sequence of emotion delivery for a better understanding of the story, and to support these emotions by facts that provide a measure of the emotional strength. To effectively convey them to the audience, it is necessary that the teller takes ownership of the emotions and feels them in the depth of his or her soul. If the teller does not believe and feel what is saying, he or she is not likely to be credible in the eyes of the audience. Furthermore, it is necessary to consider the cultural context to properly adapt the emotional content to the audience cultural codes.

To keep the audience engaged it is necessary to use the power of the turning points. There are always certain moments when a fact or a conjunction of facts triggers a domino effect to change the direction of the story. These ups and downs fuel the compelling power of the stories, and therefore it is necessary to identify them carefully in the story crafting process. Such moments have to be depicted constructing well described scenes where all the relevant details are shown. Here it is especially important to provide high quality visual support to help the audience imagine the scene.

Beyond the mentioned means, how else do you think that emotions may be conveyed when telling a story?

Marketing 3.0StrategyStrategy planning & executionTourism marketing

Monitoring results

As for all strategies, storytelling results need to be monitored to evaluate its effectiveness in terms of the marketing goals. The success of storytelling marketing is mainly measured by the extent to which stories become the focus of conversations. However, so long as the new technologies offer new possibilities, there are new metrics to consider. In accordance with Latitude’s method, we suggest that storytelling marketing performance should be measured through four main categories of metrics: Impact, integration, interactivity and immersion.

Impact: does the story inspire one to take action offline, such as purchasing, supporting a cause, inspiring one to discover more, to better oneself, etc.

  • Mindset shifting: to what extent does the story make the audience consider a new point of view or even change their attitudes in relation to a certain issue?
  • Heart shaking: does the story move the audience to support a good cause?
  • Acquired knowledge: does the audience learn anything new about the destination experiences and services? Does it boost the number of enquiries or information searches?
  • Conversion: does the call to action move the audience to take the intended action?
  • Coverage & impression: what reach, viewership and positive sentiment does it achieve? Does it generate positive publicity? Does it increase the recommendation rate?

Integration: is the story cohesive across platforms? Can it interface with the real world?

  • Cross-platform usage: how many devices and platforms are the followers using?
  • Cross-platform engagement: how engaged is the audience with each platform and device?
  • Offline integration: does the story integrate real world experiences?

Interactivity: can the audience somehow influence the elements of the story? Can they interact with other followers or with characters?

  • Plot building: how much does the audience participate in shaping the story plot (voting, providing ideas, etc.)?
  • Engagement: apart from sharing the content, how active is the audience in discussing, participating, collaborating, and competing with other followers?

Immersion: to what extent is it possible to go deeper in the story world, learn more about the context and the character’s lives, and have sensory experiences about it?

  • Information searching: how active is the audience in seeking further information about the story context and characters?
  • Extended following: to what extent does the audience look for stories related to this one?

Such metrics are to be revised and new metrics are to be created for as long as new strategies are developed in accordance with new media technologies that allow new ways of interacting, immersing, integrating online with offline experiences, and generating new kinds of impacts.

What other indicators would you consider to track the story performance?

Marketing 3.0Tourism marketing

Setting the story style

As for all the marketing materials, brand storytelling has to follow certain guidelines that are usually detailed in the corporate content marketing style guide.

In the case of destinations, where many amateur writers are to participate, this style guide plays an especially important role. First, it has to be explained in the storytelling training workshops for the new storytellers, but it has to be easily available to all of them on the corporate site. The style guide is like a basic road map that orientates writers on how to create high-quality content. There are some key recommendations to take into consideration when crafting the destination’s content marketing style guide:

Clearly define your goals and audience targets. Think about writers with different skill levels, providing not only guidelines for advanced writers but also for average and inexperienced ones.  Focus on the most common flaws and main style guidelines.

Create a logical framework that makes it user friendly. Facilitate the understanding about how to use the guide to make it easy for the new writers who are not familiar with that kind of document. Using simple language and visual aids is likely to help them out.

Use reputable sources of guidance. So long as the Style Guide cannot include guidelines for all the possible mistakes, it is convenient to use a few selected sources of style guidance that users can access in case of doubt.

Promote its usage. Apart from the digital version uploaded in the corporate website, it would be convenient to all contributors to have a paper copy of the Guide in the storytelling training workshop. Then it is the moment to explain the importance of using it.

Update it regularly. The content marketing style is likely to evolve in the same way as all the marketing strategies evolve. The Guide is therefore to be updated incorporating the new social language and other communication trends.

Some of the key components of a Content Marketing Style Guide would be:

  • List of stylistic guidelines on what to do and what not to do
  • Punctuation guidelines on when to use colons and semicolons
  • Corporate guidelines regarding some words and phrases that are part of its culture
  • Guidelines on confusing words to let the writers know the differences
  • Writer’s checklist to evaluate drafts and correct mistakes

How would you foster the adoption of the Style Guide by the non-professional contributors?