Tag: destination planning

Marketing 3.0StrategyStrategy planning & executionTourism marketing

Disney “Commandments” = Great Learning for Cities and Downtowns

This article is written by Bill Baker, Chief Strategist at Total Destination Marketing, author, speaker, and blogger at “Small City Branding around the world”.

I once came across the informal guidelines that have inspired and guided generations of Disney Imagineers as they design and manage the Disney theme parks and guest experiences. These guidelines are based on the original insights that Walt Disney used when he built Disneyland in 1955.  But it was Marty Sklar who documented these principles and called them “Mickey’s Ten Commandments: Ten Things You Can’t Forget When You Design a Theme Park”. Sklar was one of the unsung heroes of Disney. He joined Disney one month before Disneyland opened, and until his retirement in 2009 directed the Imagineers using these Commandments.

The Commandments are very simple and the principles can be applied to many situations related to tourism development, branding and marketing, urban planning and visitor experience management.

  1. Know your audience – Don’t bore people, talk down to them, or lose them by assuming that they know what you know.
  2. Wear your guest’s shoes – Insist that designers, staff, and your board members experience your facility as visitors as often as possible.
  3. Organize the flow of people and ideas – Use good storytelling techniques, tell good stories not lectures, lay out your exhibit with a clear logic.
  4. Create a ‘weenie’ – Lead visitors from one area to another by creating visual magnets and giving visitors rewards for making the journey.
  5. Communicate with visual literacy – Make good use of all the non-verbal ways of communication – color, shape, form, texture.
  6. Avoid overload – Resist the temptation to tell too much, to have too many objects, don’t force people to swallow more than they can digest, try to stimulate and provide guidance to those who want more.
  7. Tell one story at a time – If you have a lot of information divide it into distinct, logical, organized stories. People can absorb and retain information more clearly if the path to the next concept is clear and logical.
  8. Avoid contradiction – Clear institutional identity helps give you the competitive edge. The public needs to know who you are and what differentiates you from other institutions they may have seen. (Yes, Walt Disney was advocating the principles of branding long before they were applied to places.)
  9. For every ounce of treatment, provide a ton of fun – How do you woo people from all other temptations? Give people plenty of opportunity to enjoy themselves by emphasizing ways that let them participate in the experience and by making your environment rich and appealing to all of the senses.
  10. Keep it up – Never underestimate the importance of cleanliness and routine maintenance,
    people expect to get a good show every time, people will comment more on a broken and dirty environment.

In suggesting Disney principles and techniques I am not advocating the “Disneyfication” of cities and downtowns. Make no mistake, Disney properties are theme parks. They are not city or community downtowns where residents live, work, study and play. However, Disney locations have raised best practice standards in visitor experience design and consequently provide excellent learning opportunities for ambitious communities.   The genius of Walt Disney never ceases to amaze me, along with lessons from his systems that we can apply to communities everywhere.

This post is from http://citybranding.typepad.com/city-branding/page/2/

StrategyStrategy planning & execution

5 Common Mistakes in Business Planning

“The business of a business is business” goes the famous saying. Simply put, it means that a business needs to be practical (has a sound model, makes money) and realistic (whatever you set out to achieve, you should be able to achieve it) to operate successfully. However, growing a business that is both practical and realistic is much easier said than accomplished. Businesses are complicated and they contain a lot of moving parts. Here are 5 common mistakes you should be wary of so that your business remains practical and realistic during the planning stage:

  1. Not understanding the difference between planning and a plan

Tim Berry, the founder of Palo Alto Software stresses that the value is never in the original plan. Rather, it is in the implementation. He stresses that a plan can serve as the foundation providing a strategic direction but it is never valuable unless it is put into action. Planning is a continuous cycle, which takes a plan, puts it into action, compares the outcome with the projected results, and uses this new data to adjust the plan and set goals accordingly. It is the planning that creates value and allows a business to learn its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats as the time goes by – not the original plan. Therefore, a planning cycle should be put into place and the plan needs to be reviewed & appropriately changed on an annual basis to guide the business towards the desired end. This in turn, makes your business practical and realistic in response to the market.

  1. Ignoring market realities

The market is of a crucial importance to every company operating around the world. Susan Ward, co-owner of Cypress Technologies and an IT Consulting business, illustrates that a company can have an amazing product or a service that they would like to sell, but if the consumer is non-responsive to the product and does not want to purchase it, then the company will never be successful.

For example, if a company sells umbrellas in a place where it only rains 5 days a year, people would not purchase the umbrella. If the same company sells an umbrella in a market where it rains 200 out of 365 days a year, the demand is higher and umbrellas will likely sell. Even then, there are several other factors that need to be taken into consideration. Take a look at a business’ environments and corresponding factors in diagram below:

Adequate research into market dynamics needs to be conducted annually to understand the business climate, set realistic goals and assumptions, understand the competition, and price the products/services appropriately.

  1. Being everything to everyone

Bill Cosby has famously said, “I don’t know the secret to success; but the secret to failure is trying to please everybody.”

Pick a focus. Pick a problem to solve in the market. Solve it. It is crucial to pick a focus for your business and it is crucial to keep sight of it. It keeps things practical and realistic. Spreading yourself too thin trying to go in numerous different directions will most likely result in nothing working out too well. Ensure you have clear objectives when business planning and ensure that you tailor your plans to suit your business purpose. Whatever you pursue, make it your singular focus. Tim Berry defines strategy as “… focus. It’s as much what you aren’t doing as it is what you’re doing.” Therefore, be clear in what you do so that you can save time, money, and set goals that correspond with the purpose of the business. You don’t need to please everyone.

  1. Thinking that big picture is the key!

Tim Berry states that a “good business planning is nine parts implementation for every one-part strategy”. Therefore, while it is commendable to have a vision and a strategy, as they act as the guiding forces, a detailed action plan is very necessary to achieve the desired end. You should have a goal and underneath list all of the steps that need to be taken to accomplish that goal. More so, you should detail who is responsible, the dates and deadlines for the tasks, forecast the outcomes, design suitable key performance indicators to measure success, measure success against projections, and review the efforts to make decisions for the future of the company. The point is to put planning into action in such a way that there is accountability for each task and action, and you can measure each component. That will provide a much-detailed outlook onto what is working for the company and what areas require improvement. The big picture paints a pretty sight, but the details and implementation make that sight a reality.

  1. Treating it as a race or sprint

Being an entrepreneur is not a race. It’s a disciplined lifestyle, which demands time, persistence, and commitment. Therefore, to minimize risk, continuous business planning is essential and should become a natural rhythm rather than an activity you pursue irregularly. A plan should be carefully put into action. The actions then need to be measured. The new insight you gain should influence your plan. One also continuously needs to be wary of their market, consumer demands, their product/service offering, and pivot in response to the change to business’ environments.

A plan is not a final product, only a beginning. It’s the implementation, continuous planning, and the ability to adapt to the changes that will prove your efforts fruitful and help you retain an edge in the market.

In the end, business planning can indeed be a daunting task. As long as you ensure things are practical, realistic, and the plan is being implemented and reviewed regularly taking into account the change in business’ environments – your business should thrive.

This blog post is from: http://www.solimarinternational.com/resources-page/blog/item/164-5-common-mistakes-in-business-planning

StrategyStrategy planning & execution

How cluster development applies to mature destinations

Most of the aforementioned challenges faced by mature destinations may be solved, at least partly, through an adequate cluster development strategy. Furthermore, cluster development strategies may have many other benefits for the destination. The following strategies summarize most of the approaches to cluster based developments in destinations:

New cluster development. Many destinations use undeveloped areas without any relevant resource, to build new tourism infrastructures which all together are to create a new tourism cluster. This is usually related to Theme Parks, Congress & Convention facilities or other modern buildings hosting all kinds of entertainment experiences. This is the case of the “Arts and Sciences City” in Valencia, an outstanding collection of innovative architecture facilities designed by the architect Santiago Calatrava encompassing an Opera House, a Science Museum, an Imax Cinema, an Aquarium and a Venue for various types of events.

Reconverting or relaunching existing clusters. Some destinations have unexploited natural or cultural resources, which are not leveraged as tourism attractions namely due to lack of vision or imagination. These type of developments should always be a priority, so long as they enhance the identity and uniqueness of the destination. This is the case of Shanghai’s Xintiandi and Tianzifang, two areas within the downtown’s French district with old houses and unique atmospheres, which have been reconverted as charming shopping and entertainment clusters, with many types of stores and restaurants.

Re-clustering the destination. Some destinations are perceived rather as homogeneous, or they do not have a defined characterization throughout its areas. However, the reality is that in most cases there are some distinct features in the different areas that may be leveraged to build a cluster identity. In this case, the cluster development strategy consists of enhancing and marketing the differentiated character of each cluster, providing a sense of variety to the visitor. This is what some Ski resorts do, “Theme-Parking” themselves to some extent, with distinct urban aesthetics, music, etc. to build a different atmosphere in every zone.

Cluster enhancement. As it is explained in the Whitepaper “Competitiveness Planning 3.0”, clusters should be reference units when assessing the destination’s competitiveness, and also when planning competitiveness programs. So long as each cluster may be considered as a sub-destination, with its own strengths and weaknesses, every cluster should follow its own development in accordance with its intended identity, adding more value, reducing risks and discomforts and marketing itself according to its distinct value proposition. This is the very minimum that a mature destination should do to not pass from maturity to decadence.

Based on these standard strategies, cluster development may contribute to solve some of the aforementioned challenges that are usual in mature destinations, so long as they are combined with the appropriate competitiveness programs and marketing strategies and activities. All tourism development strategies are interrelated, and so they need to be coherently weaved to be successfully implemented.

Do you think of other cluster development based strategies?

StrategyStrategy planning & executionTourism marketing

Clustering benefits for marketing

So long as every type of environment is more or less adequate for certain types of activities, the correct matching between the location and the activities developed is a key factor for competitiveness and also for effective marketing, as it helps to build a cluster’s consistent identity, enhancing the character of the experience and also helping the tourists to envision what kind of feelings they are likely to experience.

Closely related to competitiveness and productivity, business concentration may also accelerate innovation in product development and process efficiency. Having a pool of competitors in the same geographical area facilitates benchmarking and stimulates innovation, so long as proximity leads to constant comparison and competition.

Furthermore, attractions concentration in a cluster makes it possible to design more attractive packages in the travel market, as well as to attract more transport operators –namely flights and bus regular lines-, which eventually open new markets. Competitive clusters attract also internationally branded operators –like reputable hotel chains-, which eventually contribute to the reputation and attractiveness of the cluster.

Other marketing benefits may come from the cooperation in marketing activities by the cluster’s operators. This includes market intelligence collection and management through a local “Tourism Observatory”, but also from sharing efforts and information for the cluster’s marketing planning, and operational marketing activities.

Through cluster based collaboration, all these benefits can be enhanced, due to the multiplier effects of more productivity, innovation and business growth in a cluster influences many other industries within the region.

Do you think of other clustering benefits for marketing?

StrategySustainability

Clustering benefits for sustainability

Cluster based destinations may also have many benefits for sustainability. First, adequate cluster development planning makes it also easier to prevent the tourist flows from overflowing the carrying capacity of the environmentally fragile areas, or having negative impacts on the residents’ lives. The cluster based development plans assess the carrying capacity of all areas to avoid congestion and protect the environmentally fragile points. Then, as long as possible, the Plans should locate the attractions in a way that spreads out the visitors’ flows within the cluster, through controlled itineraries where the flow dimension is monitored and may be constrained. So long as the flows are predictable, it is also easier for the transport and other service operators to offer the adequate services that the tourists need.

Regarding environment sustainability, so long as this is not homogeneous throughout the destination territory, dividing it into clusters is necessary as a part of the process of identification of the critical issues to be managed to ensure sustainability, as these issues are to be different in each destination cluster. Therefore, clustering is a key strategy to manage the destination’s sustainability.

Furthermore, the concentration of activities in specific areas fosters a more efficient development of infrastructures for accessibility (roads, railways, airports, etc.), reducing the negative impacts in the environment to the minimum possible. This also makes the tourism development more cost-efficient for the government, and in some cases, this cost-efficiency affects directly or indirectly the local operators and the visitors.

Cluster based destinations are also more likely to be targeted for research purposes and are easy to study, so long as  they are clearly defined areas. This facilitates gaining knowledge about the key issues that affect the destination’s sustainability. Further, as a part of the cluster infrastructure, it is quite likely that the cluster attracts educational centers, and these attract researchers at the same time, so a virtuous circle is developed in this regard.

Finally, so long as the resources are taken care of, and the activity concentration reinforces competitiveness, this also enhances the economic viability of the tourism development over the long term, ensuring the economic sustainability of the destination.

Do you think of other clustering benefits for sustainability?

StrategyStrategy planning & execution

Clustering benefits for profitability and growth

The concentration of many attractions and related services within an area, specialized in a certain type of activities is likely to attract other operators dealing with this type of activity, as this is where their potential clients go and so as to profit from the existing tourism flows and necessary services available in that area. This saves them many marketing costs, and also results in a much lower risk investment. Therefore, consolidated and competitive clusters are more likely to attract investors.

Further, as it happens in all industries’ clusters, business’ concentration reduces trading costs, thus enhancing profitability. As in all types of clusters, there are also common infrastructures and key resources, which shared among many operators, reduces its cost per operator, through creating economies of scale.

Moreover, concentration helps to boost cooperation, and by joining efforts, partners not only accelerate innovation and develop economies of scale by sharing strategic resources, but also cooperate in lobbying to gain negotiation power against common suppliers and clients, as well as to counter or neutralize other competitive forces that shape the long term industry’s profitability. The Whitepaper “The 5 Competitive forces and business strategy” depicts how these 5 forces shape the long term profitability in the tourism industry.

In many cases, companies in a specialized cluster have a better access to skilled employees and specialized suppliers, also located within the cluster influence area. Institutions or Universities can be used mutually and capital expenditures in regional marketing, infrastructure or education programs can be employed and shared together (Müller and Lanz 1998). Finally, cluster based tourism attractions’ concentration is also beneficial to profitability as long as it contributes to extending the average tourist length of stay.

Beyond profitability, consolidated clusters are also likely to foster more new business creation. First, a concentrated clients’ base lowers the risks for new suppliers to settle in, and as a result of the cluster based boosted innovation, also more spin-offs and start-ups are likely to be created. Further, financial institutions have a good knowledge about the industry, and so they are more likely to provide financial support to new ventures.

Do you think of other clustering benefits for profitability and growth?

StrategyStrategy planning & execution

Cluster based competitive advantages

In line with the origins of cluster development, the combination and cooperation of many resources and operators may result in many types of competitive advantages:

Resource uniqueness: many clusters feature a unique collection of natural or cultural resources. Cases of cultural resources could be the Egyptian Pyramid cluster along the Nile River, or the Maya Pyramid cluster in Yucatan Peninsula. Examples of unique clusters based on natural heritage could be Iceland with its unique combination of volcanos, glaciers and northern lights, or the Tanzanian cluster with Mount Kilimanjaro and the Masai mara safaris.

Experience innovation: some clusters have, beyond competitive natural or cultural resources, a special deed for innovating experiences. Such is the case of Queenstown in New Zealand’s Southern Island, the most innovative destination for adventure tourism activities, where bungee jumping was invented, among many other crazy experiences. Developing unique experiences without unique resources requires building a culture of innovation.

Operators’ cooperation: the good coordination and cooperation among the cluster operators may also be the source of competitive advantage. The case of the Trois Vallées ski area, the largest ski-lift connected ski area in Europe illustrates this type of advantage. This dominion has no unique resources like other areas in the Alps –namely Zermatt-, but the connection between the three valleys offers the best mobility efficiency for skiers who want to enjoy the whole ski dominion, allowing them to enjoy all the ski areas spending the least possible time.

Differentiated product experience: clusters featuring one main product may develop their competitive advantage by creating a unique signature experience, adding an extra value that other cluster rivals do not offer. This is the case, for instance, of the Austrian Tirol for ski holidays, offering a unique “après-ski experience” consisting with traditional Tirolean pubs with local atmosphere and also a world class network of Wellness & Spa facilities. The Ski Resorts’ accommodation facilities are all in old villages, which also give character to the experience.

Dimension: some clusters base their competitiveness in offering the largest amount of facilities or resources for a specific kind of tourism activity. Such is the case of the Golf Cluster in Costa del Sol as a Winter Golf destination in Europe. On the other side of the world, the Australian Great Barrier Reef is the largest coral reef on earth, a paradise for divers. Another example could be Macau, featuring the largest offer of Casinos in Asia.

Variety: many tourists are not only motivated for one type of activity but prefer to enjoy many different experiences during their holidays. Clusters offering a large number of different attractions appeal to an increasing number of tourists. Such is the case of the Costa Brava, offering not only attractive beaches, but also first class gastronomy, unique cultural heritage sites, a Golf cluster, a protected area for diving, Casinos, facilities for skydiving, Wellness, etc.

Price: for certain products, price is sometimes a decisive factor to gain competitiveness, especially in the case of the most standardized ones. As it happens with clusters in other industries, the competition of many operators may result in a price advantage for the tourist, though this is not usually the main reason. This could be the case of Tunisian coast cluster competing with European beach destinations, the Red Sea cluster for diving, etc.

Do you think of other cluster based competitive advantages?

Strategy

Types of tourism clusters

The term cluster is used nowadays in many different fields, always to refer to a group of elements that have something in common or do something together. It may be either used to define a large area with many attractions which all together make a competitive destination, or to define an area within a destination with clearly differentiated characteristics compared to the other destination areas. The term cluster may be used as well for conceptual grouping not related to territory, in the fields of marketing and some others.

There may be established an almost endless number of cluster categories in the field of tourism, according to many different criteria, but only a few are considered relevant enough, also to illustrate the different realities in terms of cluster development for destinations.

First of all, depending on the cluster’s resources, regardless of the aforementioned distinctions, there may be three types of clusters:

  • Natural heritage: clusters based on distinguished natural resources for sporting activities or sightseeing such as mountains, marshland areas, etc.
  • Cultural heritage: clusters based on unique or differentiated tangible –monuments- or intangible –traditions, gastronomy- cultural heritage.
  • New developments: clusters based on newly built facilities which attract tourism flows by themselves, such as Theme Parks, Casinos, Museums, Golf, etc.

Second, when referring to clusters that are to define areas with different characteristics within a local destination, there may be:

  • Urban clusters: those differentiated areas within city tourism destinations, either by the architecture style, atmosphere, natural resources like parks, cultural resources such as temples, palaces, museums, etc. Some well-known examples could be Paris with distinct districts and areas such as Montmartre, La Defense, Champs Elysees, Bois de Boulogne, Quartier Latin, etc. where outer connected clusters such as Versailles and Disneyland Paris could also be considered.
  • Mono-product destination clusters: some destinations focused in one main product offer however different areas with distinct atmospheres, based on natural or urban landscape, a different amount of tourism flows, different prices, and even different characteristics directly related with the tourism product. This could be the case of a Theme Park, a Ski resort with ski areas in many valleys or mountains, or National Parks with several areas with different types of landscape and even different animal species to be watched.

Third, when referring to clusters as areas grouping several attractions which all together make a competitive destination, there are also some types of clusters:

  • Touring clusters: these are groups of resources –usually natural or cultural heritage- which are to be discovered by following an itinerary that makes a touring experience. Some of these resources taken individually are not likely to attract many visitors, but as a part of a route they all gain a substantial amount of tourism flows and become a competitive destination. These may be of similar characteristics or quite different. Examples are the Loire Castles cluster in France, the “Norway in a nutshell” route, or the Rhin Castles cluster in Germany.
  • Agglomeration clusters: closely related with the dimension competitive advantage, some destinations become competitive due to the concentration of many attractions of the same kind within a limited area. This usually refers to new development attractions, but may also apply to natural or cultural resources. Such is the case of Theme Park clusters, Golf clusters, Ski clusters, Diving clusters, hiking clusters, etc. Many special interest tourists like to have the chance of experiencing many sites for the same activity during the same holiday period.
  • Multi-product clusters: unlike the agglomeration ones, some clusters base their competitiveness on the variety of products available, attracting those visitors who are interested in living different types of experiences. Some famous cases may be the Hawaii Islands, which are outstanding destination for sun & beach, Congresses & Conventions, but also for Nature tourism –National Parks with active volcanos- and surfing; Eastern Andalucia –in the South of Spain- boasts some of the most popular Sun & beach destinations, plenty of Golf courses, along with hiking & skiing in Sierra Nevada and cultural tourism in Granada.

Do you think of other tourism cluster categories?

Strategy

The origins of tourism clusters

As Porter says, “the function of a cluster is to create a forum for a growth oriented dialogue between key regional stakeholders”. However, as explained by The Cluster Competitiveness Group, “Clusters typically do not develop as a group of firms which join to pursue a common purpose or goal. Clusters exist, they have their own development and dynamic which can be influenced by private and public activities, but it is very difficult to purposefully construct them”. In the tourism industry, however, the dynamics are sometimes different than in other industries, due to its several particularities.

In this regard, the most typical origins of tourism cluster development are:

Local demand: a spatial concentration of competing businesses facilitates the customers purchasing decision making, allowing them to compare easily between several suppliers. In the case of tourism this happens very often for the shopping clusters. Local demand may also apply to different cases where the cluster is mainly developed by one operator, such as the Theme Parks in the outskirts of large metropolitan areas.

Related industries or related clusters: either for taking advantage of the customer flows or for leveraging specific resources, some industries develop in the same location where others are already developed due to the potential synergies between them, which eventually become a key competitive advantage. Such is the case of the Wellness cluster in the Tirol area (Austria), taking advantage of the ski tourists in the most competitive ski cluster in Europe. Other cases are the development of Golf clusters in Sun & beach destinations with little or no local demand for Golf, such as Spain and Portugal; or the development of Theme Parks in mature destinations.

Exploitation of new special interest demand: regardless of the geographical origin of the demand, the reasons for traveling have been increasing also due to new market segments related to interest in specific cultural or natural resources, for instance. The practice of sports related to natural resources such as mountains or underwater natural heritage has boosted the development of tourism in many places where there were neither related industries nor substantial local demand for these activities. The same applies to cultural tourism related to archeological sites and other types of cultural heritage.

When defining the limits of a cluster, we may consider two different criteria:

  • Cluster boundaries are defined by the linkages and complementarities across industries and institutions which are important in market competition.
  • Cluster boundaries are determined by the physical characteristics of the territory, regardless of its exploitation for tourism development.

The first corresponds to generic business cluster boundary definition, whereas the second is more closely related to tourism clusters. However, as explained in upcoming sections of this Whitepaper, some tourism clusters may correspond rather to the first boundary definition.

Do you think of other criteria to define the limits of a tourism cluster?

StrategyStrategy planning & executionSustainabilityTourism trends

What is a cluster and why are they created?

One of the key strategies to develop in any Tourism Development Plan consists of structuring the territory in different areas according to the kinds of activities to be carried out in each one. The clustering strategy is essential for the tourism development regardless of the dimension of the territory: clusters exist within countries, regions and even towns.

A cluster may be defined as a concentration of interconnected businesses and institutions in a limited geographical area. In most cases, such businesses and institutions belong to the same sector; but, as we will see in some case studies, sometimes there are new business sectors that flourish in a cluster to take advantage of assets related to other sectors in the cluster.

It may also be defined as an area characterised by a set of distinctive tourism assets which all together create a unique value system capable of attracting tourists and competing with other destinations. Many industry players settle down in the same location to cooperate in the search for synergies that improve their competitiveness:

  • Need for specific infrastructures to be leveraged by many industry players
  • Need for collaboration between industry players to create economies of scale and scope
  • Cooperation in joint marketing

Clusters also arise because they help businesses increase their productivity by sharing many strategic resources, diminishing trading costs between suppliers and clients, and fostering innovation thanks to proximity of a sector’s stakeholders. In the case of tourism destinations, clusters are the result of a concentration of operators exploiting a cultural or natural resource, or a concentration of operators developing artificial and complementary attractions.

Clusters are areas that can be considered as being internally homogeneous with specific traits that differentiate them from others. The goal of the clustering strategy is to structure the location of all tourism activities in accordance with the types of experiences and feelings they offer or the characteristics of the physical environment, and also to define a clear identity for every cluster and communicate it clearly to the visitors.

As Michael Porter says “Clusters are not unique, they are extremely typical –and therein lies the paradox: the enduring competitive advantages in a global economy lie increasingly in local settings which distant rivals cannot compensate. In a cluster, interconnected companies, firms in related industries and associated institutions both compete and cooperate”.

The term cluster may apply to many different destination dimensions: at a national, regional or local level. We may use clusters to distinguish several geographical areas within a country, each of which is specialized in a different type of experience, but also within each of these clusters there may be –and usually there are- sub-clusters according to smaller geographical areas with specific characteristics that are different from the rest, so long as these characteristics are relevant to be leveraged for a distinct tourism experience. At the lower scale, we distinguish clusters within local destinations, so long as these comprehend different areas providing unique or clearly differentiated atmospheres, resources and experiences.

Do you think of other reasons to explain the creation of clusters?