Most of the aforementioned challenges faced by mature destinations may be solved, at least partly, through an adequate cluster development strategy. Furthermore, cluster development strategies may have many other benefits for the destination. The following strategies summarize most of the approaches to cluster based developments in destinations:
New cluster development. Many destinations use undeveloped areas without any relevant resource, to build new tourism infrastructures which all together are to create a new tourism cluster. This is usually related to Theme Parks, Congress & Convention facilities or other modern buildings hosting all kinds of entertainment experiences. This is the case of the “Arts and Sciences City” in Valencia, an outstanding collection of innovative architecture facilities designed by the architect Santiago Calatrava encompassing an Opera House, a Science Museum, an Imax Cinema, an Aquarium and a Venue for various types of events.
Reconverting or relaunching existing clusters. Some destinations have unexploited natural or cultural resources, which are not leveraged as tourism attractions namely due to lack of vision or imagination. These type of developments should always be a priority, so long as they enhance the identity and uniqueness of the destination. This is the case of Shanghai’s Xintiandi and Tianzifang, two areas within the downtown’s French district with old houses and unique atmospheres, which have been reconverted as charming shopping and entertainment clusters, with many types of stores and restaurants.
Re-clustering the destination. Some destinations are perceived rather as homogeneous, or they do not have a defined characterization throughout its areas. However, the reality is that in most cases there are some distinct features in the different areas that may be leveraged to build a cluster identity. In this case, the cluster development strategy consists of enhancing and marketing the differentiated character of each cluster, providing a sense of variety to the visitor. This is what some Ski resorts do, “Theme-Parking” themselves to some extent, with distinct urban aesthetics, music, etc. to build a different atmosphere in every zone.
Cluster enhancement. As it is explained in the Whitepaper “Competitiveness Planning 3.0”, clusters should be reference units when assessing the destination’s competitiveness, and also when planning competitiveness programs. So long as each cluster may be considered as a sub-destination, with its own strengths and weaknesses, every cluster should follow its own development in accordance with its intended identity, adding more value, reducing risks and discomforts and marketing itself according to its distinct value proposition. This is the very minimum that a mature destination should do to not pass from maturity to decadence.
Based on these standard strategies, cluster development may contribute to solve some of the aforementioned challenges that are usual in mature destinations, so long as they are combined with the appropriate competitiveness programs and marketing strategies and activities. All tourism development strategies are interrelated, and so they need to be coherently weaved to be successfully implemented.
Do you think of other cluster development based strategies?